Epithalon Examined

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Epithalon

Epithalon is a peptide that contains a molecular weight of 390.3459, and its molecular formula is C14H22N4O9.  Its structural integrity consists of four amino acids.  It occasionally goes by the following names:

  • CID2192042
  • LS-72251
  • Epitalon
  • Epithalone

It is derived from the pineal gland; a gland of the endocrine system that is typically linked to the regulation and control of several processes relating to the growth and development of animal test subjects.

Epithalon and Telomeres

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, it has been determined that Epithalon’s functionality can be directly tied to the part of a cell that is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the genetic code.  This part, known as telomeres, essentially acts as a binding agent of a DNA sequence found within the animal test subject’s cell for purposes of maintaining genetic homeostasis.  This binding can be accomplished because of the secretion of an enzyme known as telomerase, which serves to keep the length of the telomeres consistent through the process of cellular division.  Over time, however, the secretion of the enzyme ceases, thus causing the binding of the DNA code to lose strength and length with each subsequent cell division.  Eventually, they become too weak to contain the DNA and it unravels, inadvertently causing the DNA to become scattered.  When this scattering happens, the information held within becomes disrupted in the sense that the animal test subject cannot decode it properly.  When this happens, the body reacts by enabling the aging process to kick in.

Scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has determined that Epithalon has the ability to increase the production of telomerase.   By extension, it has been shown a faculty to boost the overall length and strength of telomeres, which enables for a stronger sense of integrity within an animal test subjects’ DNA sequencing to take place.  Ultimately, this functionality would enable the aging process and the subsequent effects of said process to be delayed.

Beneficial Properties

Due to the way in which Epithalon has been shown to operate, scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that it can hold a host of properties that can be deemed as beneficial.

The most prominent of these benefits ties into its link to an animal test subject’s biological age.  Because of the way in which it can promote a boost in the integrity of telomeres, it is thought that its presence can slow down the physicological properties and internal processes that could degrade at a slower rate than its chronological age.  In other words, an older animal test subject could conceivably display tendencies and behaviors that are more consistent with an animal test subject that is younger.

In turn, this theorized benefit could be linked to Epithalon being instrumental in prohibiting the onset of a host of potentially deadly diseases that is at least partially associated with the overall process of aging.  These diseases would include issues like cancer, stroke, heart failure, or a lessening of mental function such as dementia.  Additionally, its abilities have also led to the notion that its functionality could make it easier for scientific study to pinpoint the triggers that signify the onset of such issues.

Further scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has determined that Epithalon could be linked to the act of lipolysis; that is, the act in which fatty acids are broken down  Because its processes ultimately lead to an elevated sense of homeostasis within an animal test subject’s body, it is thought to be able to boost a host of regulatory processes that have shown a tendency to degrade over time.  One of these processes that it has been linked to is the allowance of an aging animal test subject the ability to break down body fat at a rate that would normally be seen for a younger animal test subject.  Other age-degraded processes that it could conceivably help with include flexibility, reaction time, libido, and the ability to fight off minor illnesses that are not considered to be life threatening.

For Scientific Research Only

Even though there has been an extensive amount of research and study conducted in relation to Epithalon and its overall functionality, operational mechanics, and theorized benefits, it needs to be noted that all of the research that has been conducted and the subsequent results from such research has been solely built around the scientific study based on animal test subjects.  The peptide is only intended for the use of scientific study at this point in time.  Therefore, any findings or observations that relate to Epithalon’s overall functionality, mechanics, or theoretical benefits, should only be contained to the strict confines of a controlled environment such as a medical research facility or a laboratory.

How Fragment 176-191 Works

What is Fragment 176-191?

Fragment 176-191, also known as neuron cytoplasmic protein 9.5, Frag 176-191, or gracile axonal dystrophy, is a peptide that is a modified version of amino acids 176-191.  Its molecular formula is C78H125N23O23S2, and it has a molecular weight of 1817.12.  According to scientific study on animal test subjects, the peptide has been known to exhibit antibiotic tendencies, and has also demonstrated abilities that are consistent with antigen binders.

How Fragment 176-191 Works

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, it has been determined that Fragment 176-191 primarily works in two overarching functions:

  • The stimulation of lipolysis – Lipolysis is the process that can be basically defined as the breakdown of fats. Studies have indicated that the peptide promotes a greater instance of this process to occur.
  • The slowing down of lipogenesis – Lipogenesis is the process in which fatty acids that make up adipose tissue (also known as body fat) are formed. Studies have shown that Fragment 176-191 works to inhibit this process from occurring.

Scientific study based on animal test subjects has shown that the peptide can carry out these functions by essentially mimicking the process in which the regulation of fat metabolism is achieved.  Further scientific study has indicated that Fragment 176-191 accomplishes this task without promoting any inadvertent negative effects on blood sugar or cellular proliferation.  It can do this act of mimicry, in part, because its functionality enables it to engage the animal test subject on a deeply cellular level.  Specifically, a level that chiefly involves two components of the cell:  The cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.  These are in essence the parts of the cell that regulates cellular function and protein synthesis.  Fragment 176-191 is able to replicate these functions, and this ultimately works to provide animal test subjects with a greater sense of homeostasis.

The result of this overarching process essentially allows an animal test subject to experience a more efficient means of weight loss.  Studies have indicated that the presence of Fragment 176-191 allows for fat burning in the test subjects to occur at a rate that is 12.5 faster than it would otherwise occur.  Additionally, these studies have determined that the presence of Fragment 176-191 can enable an animal test subject to experience an elevated level of fat oxidation, an increased measure of energy expenditure, and a boosted measure of muscle and tissue mass.

Fragment 176-191 and Brain Activity

Because of the way in which Fragment 176-191 functions – specifically, the way it has been shown to interact with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane – scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that the preence of the peptide could play a key role in the concept of mental preservation.  Specifically, it is thought that Fragment 176-191 could be considered a possible aid in brains that are afflicted with Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.  The base of this theory is rooted in the fact that it has been demonstrated that brains suffering from either one of the diseases feature a down-regulated level of the peptide within their associated neuroendocrine systems.

Thus far, scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that the presence of Fragment 176-191 may theoretically work to prevent the type of basal lesions that have been shown to be a key feature in the onset of Parkinson’s disease.  Additionally, these studies have shown that Fragment 176-191’s functionality could work to offset the levels of toxicity and protein malfunction that play a prime role in the beginning stages of Alzheimer’s disease.

Fragment 176-191 and Insulin

Further scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that the presence of Fragment 176-191 could play a vital role in insulin regulation.  These studies indicated that the peptide has the faculty to boost the blood glucose levels within an animal test subject over a finite interval of time.  These studies also show that the peptide can achieve a heightened level of insulin levels within plasma for a longer period of time.  The reasoning behind this theory can be found within Fragment 176-191’s 15 amino acid structure, as it is thought that this particular sequence and the way in which it’s structured can shuttle insulin throughout an animal test subject’s body on a more regulated and more consistent basis.

Purely for Scientific Research

Despite the fact that there has been plenty of research on Fragment 176-191 in relation to how it functions and the benefits that can be derived from such functionality, it should be emphasized that the peptide is still just intended for scientific study at this point in time.  All matters of research relating to the way in which Fragment 176-191 operates has been derived from scientific study on animal test subjects.  Because of this, any findings or observations relating to Fragment 176-191’s overall functionality, mechanics, benefits, should exclusively be the product of study performed in a strictly contained environment such as a medical research facility or a laboratory.

GnRH (Triptorelin) Data

What is GnRH (Triptorelin)?

GnRH (Triptorelin) is a decapeptide.  What this means, is that it is a peptide that consists of a chain of 10 amino acids.  It has a molecular formula is C64H82N18O13, and it contains a molecular weight of 1311.5.  It is occasionally known by different names, such as:

  • Decapeptyl
  • Gonapeptyl
  • Variopeptyl
  • Diphereline

How GnRH (Triptorelin) Works

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, GnRH (Triptorelin) has been shown to primarily function with the pituitary gland.  This is the pea-sized gland that is chiefly responsible for the regulation and control of a host of essential functions related to an animal test subject’s endocrine system.  Some of the more noteworthy functions include the regulation of growth, the functionality of the thyroid gland, the control of metabolism, the regulation of temperature, and the functionality of sex organs.

GnRH (Triptorelin)’s overall operational mechanics are such that it causes a constant stimulation of the pituitary gland, thus enabling an increased expression on some of its secretions.  However, as the peptide performs this task, it simultaneously lowers the production of luteinizing hormone.  This particular secretion regulates and controls the production of estrogen in female animal test subjects and it controls the production of testosterone in male animal test subjects.  GnRH (Triptorelin) has also been shown to lessen the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone.  This particular secretion is responsible for the regulation and control of the development, growth, and pubertal maturation within an animal test subject.  Both of these secretions have been noted to play a key role in the overall regulation and control of an animal test subject’s reproductive process.

The Results of GnRH (Triptorelin)’s Functionality

Because of the way in which GnRH (Triptorelin) has been shown to function in relation to the pituitary gland and these particular hormones has led scientific study based on animal test subjects to determine that it can hypothetically yield several benefits.

The most prominent of these benefits is in relation to the treatment of various hormone-responsive cancers.  This is due to the fact that there are certain types of cancers that have at least a partial link to the secretion of luteinizing hormone and its association with the levels of estrogen in female animal test subjects and testosterone in male animal test subjects.  As one may suspect, the most prominent of these cancers that have been associated with the secretion of this hormone are breast cancer and prostate cancer.  Because GnRH (Triptorelin) has been shown to have the capability for lessening the level of luteinizing hormones that are produced, scientific study has thought that the peptide could be used in order to slow down or even cease the effects of the these types of cancers that have ties to the hormone.

GnRH (Triptorelin)’s ability to inhibit the production of luteinizing hormone has enabled scientific study based on animal test subjects to determine that it could play a vital role in possibly treating several conditions whose proliferation is tied to estrogen dependency.  Some of these particular conditions include uterine fibroid and endometriosis.  Uterine fibroid is a condition in which a benign tumor originating from smooth muscle tissue clusters within the uterus of a female animal test subject, which could make the processes of menstruation and sexual intercourse painful.  Endometriosis, on the other hand, is a condition where cells from the lining of the uterus appear and thrive outside a female animal test subject’s uterine cavity, which could cause severe pain and even infertility.

Scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has also shown that the presence of GnRH (Triptorelin) could play a vital role in the treatment of precocious puberty.  This particular condition refers to the onset of pubertal maturation occurring within an animal test subject at an unusually early age.  Because GnRH (Triptorelin) has exhibited a faculty to stem the release of follicle-stimulating hormone, and therefore its ability to regulate the development and pubertal maturation of an animal test subject, it is thought that it can help a test subject that is suffering from this condition a more consistent sense of proper homeostasis in terms of pubertal maturation.

Set Aside for Scientific Research

It should be emphasized that even though the extensive amount of research and study that has been conducted in order to pinpoint the functionality, mechanics, and hypothetical benefits of GnRH (Triptorelin), it is only intended for the sole use of scientific study at this time.  All of the research and findings that have been determined and discussed are completely built around the scientific study on animal test subjects.  Because of this, any findings or observations that can be tied to GnRH (Triptorelin)’s overall functionality, mechanics, or hypothetical benefits should exclusively be contained to a laboratory, a medical research facility, or another strictly controlled environment in this vein.

Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) Information

Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500)

The polypeptide Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500), also known as Tβ4, is a peptide that has a molecular formula of C12H35N56O78S and a molecular weight of 4963.4408.  Its chain consists of 43 different amino acids.  It is currently being used exclusively for scientific study on animal test subjects.

Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) Basics

The chief function of Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) according to scientific study based on animal test subjects is its capacity to regulate the cell-building protein known as actin.  This globular multi-functional protein is a vital component to several processes that happen to animal test subject on a cellular level.  Some of these processes include cyotkinesis, cell motility, vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, muscle contraction, and cell shape establishment and maintenance.  In other words, its presence ensures that cells function in the manner in which they should function.

Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) has been shown to work in conjunction with actin by binding to the protein.  This allows for a sequestering molecule to be created, which then blocks the process of reacting monomer molecules relating to a chemical reaction to form polymer chains.

Additionally, scientific study on animal test subjects has determined that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) is also tied to the following two methods of functionality:

  • Promotion of an accelerated form of endothelial migration – This is a form of migration that aids in the formation and maintenance of blood vessels.
  • Promotion of an accelerated form of keratinocyte migration – This migratory process works to create an epidermal barrier against environmental damages that could be caused by pathogens, UV rays, water loss, and heat.

In addition to boosting these migratory processes, scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500)’s presences plays a vital role in forming and regulating blood vessels; a process that directly correlates to the process of endothelial migration.  Also, these studies have determined that the presence of the peptide can be found in fluid that can accumulate around an animal test subject’s wound, and that it does possess natural wound healing properties.  Plus, it has been determined that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500)’s low molecular weight allows it to travel long distances via tissues throughout an animal test subject’s body.  And while these studies have yet to determine whether or not Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) is anabolic (that is, its presence plays a key role in the growth and repair of muscular and skeletal tissue), it has been determined that the results that are tied to its functionality are consistent with similar peptides that are known to be anabolic in their nature.

How an Animal Test Subject’s Processes Benefit

According to scientific studies based on animal test subjects it has been determined that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) and the way in which it functions can be tied to a host of process boosts.

For instance, the way in which Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) can promote the process of cellular migration through its relationship with actin has led to the determination that the presence of the peptide can allow for cellular growth to occur at a significantly faster rate.  This then is thought to lead for a more efficient rate of muscular and skeletal tissue growth for an animal test subject.

The determination that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500)’s presence can be detected in wound fluid coupled with the fact that it can boost a higher rate of anti-inflammatory properties by way of promoting keratinocyte migration has led to the thought that the peptide’s presence can accelerate wound repair.  Furthermore, its ability to boost cellular generation has led to the notion that Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) can be capable of allowing an animal test subject to experience an accelerated rate at which it can recover from various injuries relating to muscular and skeletal tissues.

Another determination that has been made via scientific study on animal test subjects relates to the realm of flexibility.  Because Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) has been shown to have boosted anti-inflammatory properties, it has been shown that its presences can allow for tissues to stretch to a wider range without experiencing damage or fatigue.  As such, this enables an animal test subject the ability to experience a broader scope of physical stress and movement without the effects of hyperextension occuring.

Other boosted processes that have been linked to Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) include collage deposition, cell differentiation in blood vessels, and angiogenesis in dermal tissues; that is, the process in which new blood cells grow from earlier vessels.

Strictly for Controlled Environments

It should be noted that any findings or observations that relate to Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) and its overall functionality should exclusively be done within a strictly controlled environment, such as a medical research facility or a laboratory.  The reason for this is due to the fact that the peptide and the study its operational is currently just fit for scientific study on animal test subjects.  As such, it should be noted that research that has been derived regarding Thymosin Beta 4 (TB500) is due to scientific tests conducted in a controlled environment only.

What Exactly Is GHRP-2?

What is GHRP-2?

The hexipeptide GHRP-2, also occasionally known as KP-102 or GHRP-2, is a secretogogue with a molecular formula is C45H55N9O6 and a molecular mass of 817.9.  It can occasionally be referred to by different names, such as GHRP or KP-102.  It is considered to be non-glycosylated in nature.

GHRP-2 and the Body

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, it has been determined that GHRP-2’s primary function is to increase protein synthesis.

One of the key ways that it can achieve this functionality is due to its relationship with the pituitary gland.  This is the pea-sized gland found at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain that is charged with the regulation control of a host of endocrine system-related properties, from growth and metabolism to pain relief and temperature regulation.  GHRP-2’s functionality is to boost the functionality of the pituitary gland, which in turn plays a vital role in the increase of protein synthesis.  It achieves this as part of a twofold process:

  • The stimulation of the release of secretions from somatropic cells within the pituitary gland
  • The blockage of somatostatin; a peptide secretion whose expression regulates the endocrine system and the processes that it governs

Additionally, scientific study based on animal test subjects has shown that it can boost the levels of calcium ion influx, which can in turn stimulate the production of more growth hormones.

Further scientific study based on animal test subjects has shown that GHRP-2 has the capacity to stimulate the production of ghrelin; a self-regulating 28 amino acid enzyme that is primarily produced in the stomach.  In essence, the secretion of ghrelin serves to stimulate hunger for an animal test subject, which naturally causes a desire to consume food.  Studies have indicated that GHRP-2 serves to boost the secretion levels of ghrelin, thus causing the animal test subject to experience the sensation of hunger for a longer, more sustained period of time.  In turn, this grants the test subject a desire to consume a greater amount of food.  This uptick of food consumption can then provide the fuel that is needed for the elevated protein synthesis that is caused by GHRP-2’s other functions in conjunction with the pituitary gland.

Also, scientific study based on animal test subjects has shown that GHRP-2 can increase the production of the liver-secreted protein IGF-1.  Also known as Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, this particular protein has been shown to exhibit strong anabolic properties, meaning that it can play a vital role in the growth and repair of muscles and tissues.

GHRP-2 Hypothetical Benefits

Because GHRP-2 has been shown to boost protein synthesis through its association with the pituitary gland, ghrelin, and IGF-1, scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has determined that the its presence could hypothetically play a key role in the elevation of several elevated processes.

The chief elevated process that has been associated with GHRP-2 relates to the proliferation of muscle growth.  Because it has been shown to boost the functionality of the pituitary gland and elevate the production level of IGF-1, it is thought that its presence can induce a faster rate in which muscle mass can be developed and grown within an animal test subject.  These process metrics have also led to the notion that its presence could lead to a more efficient means of injury recovery due to its ability to boost instances of muscle repair.

Another elevated process that has been linked to its functionality is that of the burning of adipose tissue, also known as body fat.  Scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has determined that its ability to invoke a more efficient means of protein synthesis can cause body fat to be broken down quicker, despite the fact that an animal test subject may consume a greater amount of food due to body fat.

A third elevated process relates to its ability to possibly enhance a body’s anit-inflammatory action in animal test subjects.  Because of its capacity to increase the functionality of the pituitary gland, it is thought that it can cut down the instances of negative reaction that a body may have to various irritants, damaged cells, or other various pathogens.

Nowhere But a Restricted Environment

While plenty of research and study has been conducted regarding the overall functionality and mechanics of GHRP-2, the peptide is still solely intended for the use of scientific study at this point in time.  Specifically, any research and the subsequent results of such research have solely been built on scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects.  Because of this, it needs to be emphasized that any observations in relation to GHRP-2’s overall functionality or mechanics should be contained to a controlled environment like a medical research facility or a laboratory only.

BPC 157 Explained

How BPC 157 Works

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, BPC 157 has been shown to be present in gastric juices, and can manifest itself all throughout a test subject’s digestive tract.  When it has been isolated, it has been shown to exhibit anti-ulcer peptidgeric properties, meaning that is has the capability of providing a measure of regulatory control over the digestive tract’s overall functionality.  It has been determined that BPC 157 can provide this regulation in part because of two processes:

  • Endothelium protection – It has been shown that BPC 157 has the faculty to safeguard the thin layer of cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels
  • Properties of angiogenesis – It has been determined that the peptide plays a vital role in the process in which new blood vessels are formed from pre-existing blood vessels.

These functions can be related to several other functions that have been connected to the peptide through scientific study based on animal test subjects.  For instance, BPC 157’s angiogenic properties allow it to play a key role in wound healing and in the formation of the new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that develop on the surfaces of wound during its healing process.  Additionally, the properties help to regulate blood flow throughout animal gastro-intestinal tract.  They also have been shown to tie into anti-inflammatory properties.

BPC 157 as a Theorized Aid

Because of the way in which BPC 157 has been shown to operate throughout an animal test subject’s digestive tract, scientific study has been able to theorize a host of ways in which the peptide could provide aid regarding certain gastro-intestinal functions.

One of the ways in which BPC 157 has been determined to be an aid concerns the collection of complex tissue responses concerning the colon and small intestine that make up inflammatory bowel disease.  These conditions, such as ulcerative colitis and Chron’s disease, are marked by unpleasant symptoms relating to ulcers and chronic inflammation.  It has been determined that the peptide’s natural anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties can be shown to lessen the effects of these particular conditions by improving the affected digestive tracts with a more stabilized sense of regulation.

A second aid that has been put forth involves activities involved at the start of the digestive tract, as its anti-inflammatory properties have been shown to play a key role in lessening the effects of periodontitis.  This condition is essentially a set of inflammatory diseases that has been shown to affect the tissues that surround and support the teeth.  Scientific study that has been conducted on lab rats has determined that the presence of the peptide can prevent the leakage of fluid related to gum line inflammation from occurring.  It ha also been shown that the peptide can reduce levels of alveolar bone resportion, which is the process where calcium is released from bone fluid and is subsequently entered into the bloodstream.

Furthermore, scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that BPC 157 can play a key role in significantly lowering levels of toxicity levels that can otherwise build up as a result of other foreign agents infiltrating the test subjects’ bodies.  Research that has been built on laboratory rats has demonstrated that the peptide’s presence can be particularly instrumental in reducing levels of toxicity characterized by severe lesions that can develop in the gastro-intestinal tract as well as the liver.

Finally, scientific study conducted on animal test subjects has determined that the presence of BPC 157 – specifically, its anti-inflammatory properties – enable it to have theoretic wound healing properties.  Studies on lab rats that had their Achilles tendons cut transversely have demonstrated that the peptide enabled a significant boost in the outgrowth of tendon explants, meaning that the rodents were able to recover from their injury more efficiently.  These studies have also indicated that BPC 157 can promote cellular survival in various instances of wound-based trauma.

Set Aside for Scientific Research

It should be emphasized that despite the extensive amount of research and study that has been conducted in order to pinpoint the functionality and mechanics of BPC 157, it is only intended for the sole use of scientific study at this time.  All of the research and findings that have been determined and discussed are completely built around the scientific study on animal test subjects.  Because of this, any findings or observations that can be tied to BPC 157’s overall functionality, mechanics, or theoretical benefits should exclusively be contained to a laboratory, a medical research facility, or another strictly controlled environment.

All About AICAR

What is AICAR?

The peptide AICAR is an intermediate within the generation of inosine monophosphate, a nucleotide monophosphate that plays a vital role in the regulation of metabolism.  It contains a molecular weight of 338.211, and has a molecular formula of C9H15N4O8P.  It can sometimes be known by several different names, including:

  • AICA Ribonucleotide
  • ZMP
  • Acadesine
  • 5-aminoimidozloe-4 carboxamide ribonucleotide

AICAR on a Cellular Level

According to scientific study based on animal test subjects, it has been determined that AICAR works on a cellular level by infiltrating cardiac cells.  Once these cells have been entered, the peptide continues its functionality by prohibiting the creation of the enzymes adenosine kinase (ADK) and adenosine deaminase (ADA); two enzymes that regulate glucose intake and energy conversion.  Because AICAR has been shown to block these two enzymes from happening, it has been determined that the presence of the peptide can lead to an elevated level of which glucose is synthesized by the cellular unit, as well as a boosted rate in which energy can be converted.  Additionally, these studies also show that AICAR has an ability to block apotosis; that is, the process of programmed cell death.

What This Cellular Level Interaction Means

Because of AICAR’s ability to in essence work with cardiac cells to improve glucose intake and energy production, scientific study based on animal test subjects has derived several positive associations that tie into the peptide’s mechanics.

The primary association that has been ascertained relates to AICAR’s possible ability to aid in prevention and/or treatment of issues related to cardiac ischemic injury.  In general terms, an ischemic injury is something that is caused by a constraint of blood supply to tissues, which in turn causes insufficient levels of glucose and oxygen to occur; this causes a breach in the animal test subjects’ ability to conduct proper cellular metabolism, which is essential for tissue survival.  While an ischemic condition can manifest itself in various conditions such as thrombosis, vasoconstriction, or embolism, a cardiac ischemic injury is one that directly correlates to the myocardium, the muscle that is better known as the heart.  This condition can lead to cardiac arrest, and could be signaled by a condition known as angina pectoris, otherwise known as a lack of sufficient blood flow to the brain.

AICAR’s overall mechanics are such that scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that it can possibly help in preventing blood flow restriction; this prevention could aid in stopping an ischemic episode from happening even before it begins.  It is also thought that ACAR’s properties can make in an effective aid in treating an animal test subject in the event of a heart attack that is brought on by an ischemic episode.  This deduction is specifically tied to the peptide’s ability to promote an elevated level of blood flow to the heart muscle, thus allowing a greater instance of stabilization as the animal test subject recovers.

AICAR’s functionality has also led scientific study on animal test subjects to determine that the peptide can allow for an increased endurance to occur.  It is though that AICAR can do this because the of the peptide’s ability to enable blood to flow through an animal test subject’s circulatory system more freely.  This, then, enables a more efficient means of receiving energy, thus allowing for an animal test subject to experience a boosted level of energy over a longer stretch of time.

Additionally, it has been noted that AICAR’s functionality could allow for a boosted rate at wich adipose tissue (also known as body fat) can get broken down.  This elevated process is due to the notion that AICAR can enable a more efficient means of energy conversion.  Because of this boosted rate, the animal test subject’s body will respond by increasing the rate it can burn through adipose tissue in order to compensate for the heightened energy demands.  It should be noted that this uptick in breaking down adipose tissue is only effective if the animal test subject sticks to a controlled, regulated diet and does not increase its elevated intake of food.

Only for Research Purposes

Despite the fact that an extensive amount of study and research has been done in order to pinpoint the overall functionality of AICAR, up to and including the ways in which it can promote various process, it needs to be emphasized that all of the research has only been constructed around scientific studies that have been based on animal test subjects.  Furthermore, the current use of the peptide is solely intended for scientific research purposes and nothing more.  Any findings or observations relating to AICAR’s overall functionality the determinations that can be derived from such observations should be exclusively contained to a strictly controlled environment such as a laboratory or a medical research facility.

Ipamorelin Analysis

American Made Ipamorelin

The polypeptide Ipamorelin is a pentipeptide, meaning that its structure is comprised of five amino acids.  It contains a molecular mass of, nd its molecular formula is C38H49N9O5.  It can sometimes go by the alternate names Ipamorelin Acetate, IPAM, and NNC-26-0161.  It is a secretogogue, and is considered to be an agonist.  What this means is, it possesses the ability to bind certain receptors of a cell and provokes a cellular response.

Ipamorelin at a Glance

Ipamorelin’s overall functionality, according to scientific study that has been based in animal test subjects, can be traced to the pituitary gland and the liver.  The first organ is the pea-sized gland located at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain is responsible for the control and regulation of a host of bodily functions relating the endocrine system, including growth and metabolism to internal water regulation and pain relief.  The second organ is the vital organ that is charged with providing an animal test subject with accurate functionality as it pertains to detoxification, protein synthesis, and digestion.

Ipamorelin’s relationship with the pituitary gland has been determined to boost the expression of secretions as they relate to growth.  Simultaneously, it has been shown to allow for the blockage of somatostain; a secretion whose expression inhibits the release of growth hormone within an animal test subject.

Ipamorelin’s relationship with the liver, on the other hand, is that it has been shown to boost the production of IGF-1, a secretion that is sometimes referred to as Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 or Somatomedin C.  Scientific studies based on animal test subjects have determined that the secretion is highly anabolic in its nature.  What this means is, it has been shown to play a key role in controlling the growth and repair of muscular and skeletal tissues within an animal test subject.  Because Ipamorelin’s functionality enables a boost in the production of this particular secretion, it is thought that the anabolic properties of IGF-1 can also be extended.

When all of these operational functions are combined, it has been determined that the result of such function is an animal test subject that can experience an increased measure of repair and growth.  Such aspects of functionality enable the peptide to be comparable to the functionality of other secretogogues such as GHRP-6.

Ipamorelin and the Production of Ghrelin

One chief way that Ipamorelin differs from other secretogogues such as GHRP-6 is that it does not boost the production of ghrelin.  Produced primarily by the stomach in animal test subjects, ghrelin is a 28-amino acid enzyme whose overall functionality is to produce the sensation of feeling hungry; a functionality that counteracts the production of the secretion leptin, whose expression stimulates the sensation of feeling full.  Because Ipamorelin does not increase the production of ghrelin, the animal test subject can experience a more consistent level of homeostasis in terms of food consumption even when the peptide is introduced.

Ipamorelin and Other Boosts

Further scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that Ipamorelin does not cause a significant increase in the levels of cortisol; the hormone that has been shown to raise blood sugar via the process of glucogenesis in animal test subjects.  It has also been determined that Ipamorelin does not create an elevation in the level of prolactin, the hormone that plays a key role in the regulation and control of the immune system of animal test subjects, mainly as they relate to lactation.

Ipamorelin Benefits

Scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has determined that Ipamorelin’s operational mechanics can be linked to a host of several hypothetical boosted processes.  Some of these process include:

  • A strengthening of bone mass
  • A boost in the burning of body fat
  • An improvement of skin tone
  • A strengthening of connective tissue
  • A rejuvenation and strengthening of joints

Additionally, scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that the beneficial processes that have been derived from the presence of the peptide could play a vital role in potentially slowing down the overall aging process.  These studies have also determined that the side effects that are associated with Ipamorelin are sparse in their manifestation and are relatively mild in their nature.

Set Aside for Scientific Research

It should be emphasized that despite the extensive amount of research and study that has been conducted in order to pinpoint the functionality and mechanics of Ipamorelin, it is only intended for the sole use of scientific study at this time.  All of the research and findings that have been determined and discussed are completely built around the scientific study on animal test subjects.  Because of this, any findings or observations that can be tied to Ipamorelin’s overall functionality, mechanics, or theoretical benefits should exclusively be contained to a laboratory, a medical research facility, or another strictly controlled environment in this vein.

Peptide Suppliers

In some respects, research peptides represent the wave of the future in terms of scientific study that is based on animal test subjects.  In other respects, you could say that the future is now, and with good reason.  After all, medical technology has advanced to the point where it has become easier than ever to utilize research peptides in order to explore the inner workings of an animal test subject’s complex processes, particularly as they relate to the following attributes:

  • Protein synthesis
  • Muscular and skeletal tissue proliferation
  • Endocrine-system related processes, such as lipolysis and anti-inflammatory action
  • Inhibitions of issues pertaining to ischemic conditions

Because of this, peptides are in high demand, and this desire to purchase them shows little to no signs of waning.  Based on that rationale, it stands to reason that a greater proliferation of companies that are looking to sell you research peptides for whatever scientific study you are planning on conducting with animal test subjects.  This has turned the market for obtaining the right kind of peptide into something that feels a bit like buying a car or a refrigerator, in the sense that doing due diligence and a little bit of comparison shopping in order to purchase the right substance is of the essence.  This step is increasingly important with each passing year and as more choices flood the market.  After all, the right peptide can be a tremendous aid to your research, whereas the wrong peptide can yield devastating effects, especially if a long-term project is involved.

Trust is Key

Because there is so much at stake concerning purchasing the right peptide, it is very important that you take great measures to find a company that you can trust to provide you with the proper peptides that you need.  Indeed, there are certain attributes that you should always look for in a company as you do your due diligence in finding the ideal provider.  These attributes are elements that are unwavering, because they are all prime indicators of their overall trustworthiness.  If these attributes are lacking in any way, then it can be rather difficult to cultivate that level of trust.  The good news here is, these attributes are not all that difficult to find.

Look for Certification

First and foremost, you should only be looking at working with a supplier who is a certified peptide dealer.  In essence, certification means that the supplier in question has a level of clearance from an important medical governing agency such as the FDA in order to sell the peptide.  Because of the uptick in the number of companies that are now selling research peptides, it is not necessarily a guarantee that every seller that you encounter will be certified.   Dealing with a certified supplier adds an extra level of security and trust to your transaction.  Considering the delicate nature of research peptides, that extra level of trust should be viewed as something that is rather important.

You Get What You Pay For

If you do comparison shopping in other avenues of your life, you may be of the mindset that saving a few bucks here and there is an essential part of your purchasing strategy.  However, it is advisable to proceed with caution if you plan on using this particular metric in buying research peptides.  While cost-effectiveness may be an attractive attribute to a certain degree, selecting a supplier solely because they could save your lab facility some money should not be viewed as the primary metric to use.

The reason why this is the case has to do with the fact that cheap peptides are oftentimes linked to a downgraded level in overall purity.  In essence, a peptide’s purity will be able to give you a pretty accurate gauge as far as how consistent the research that is associated with it will be.  For example, a peptide that has a purity level of 100% will yield results that will retain a certain level of consistency, even if the duration of the research stretches out over a long period of time.  Conversely, a peptide that has a lower purity level will produce a greater sense of variance regarding certain test results; these variances could eventually cause inconsistencies to form over the course of long-term research, which in turn could compromise the overall integrity of the project.

More often than not, the reason why the price tag is so low on these cheap peptides is due to the fact that they are diluted in order to keep their cost down.  However, when these peptides are diluted, the overall purity of the peptide decreases as well, leaving you with a peptide that could produce inconsistent research results.  As such, it is imperative that if you see a low-cost peptide, you need to make sure that the purity level of the peptide that is being sold is at a proper level of purity.

The Power of Being Informative

Another attribute that you want to detect in a supplier of research peptides relates to how informative they are in relation to the peptide, and how willing they are to share that information with you.  For example, a trustworthy supplier should be able to provide you will all of the supporting research materials that you would need in order to deploy the peptide in your research properly.  In other words, there should not be any guesswork regarding the peptide’s administrative, intentional, or storage properties when you receive the substance.  If the supplier is willing to supply you with the information that you need in order to undergo a successful battery of research, chances are great that the supplier will also work with you to make sure you receive exactly what you are looking for in other aspects of your research activity, such as making sure you have the precise quantity of peptides that you may need to be successful in your research endeavor.

If you find a supplier that matches these important attributes, then you will give yourself a decided leg up in making sure the peptides that you purchase will yield the most effective results possible.

All About AICAR

What is AICAR?

The peptide AICAR is an intermediate within the generation of inosine monophosphate, a nucleotide monophosphate that plays a vital role in the regulation of metabolism.  It contains a molecular weight of 338.211, and has a molecular formula of C9H15N4O8P.  It can sometimes be known by several different names, including:

  • AICA Ribonucleotide
  • ZMP
  • Acadesine
  • 5-aminoimidozloe-4 carboxamide ribonucleotide

AICAR on a Cellular Level

According to scientific study based on animal test subjects, it has been determined that AICAR works on a cellular level by infiltrating cardiac cells.  Once these cells have been entered, the peptide continues its functionality by prohibiting the creation of the enzymes adenosine kinase (ADK) and adenosine deaminase (ADA); two enzymes that regulate glucose intake and energy conversion.  Because AICAR has been shown to block these two enzymes from happening, it has been determined that the presence of the peptide can lead to an elevated level of which glucose is synthesized by the cellular unit, as well as a boosted rate in which energy can be converted.  Additionally, these studies also show that AICAR has an ability to block apotosis; that is, the process of programmed cell death.

What This Cellular Level Interaction Means

Because of AICAR’s ability to in essence work with cardiac cells to improve glucose intake and energy production, scientific study based on animal test subjects has derived several positive associations that tie into the peptide’s mechanics.

The primary association that has been ascertained relates to AICAR’s possible ability to aid in prevention and/or treatment of issues related to cardiac ischemic injury.  In general terms, an ischemic injury is something that is caused by a constraint of blood supply to tissues, which in turn causes insufficient levels of glucose and oxygen to occur; this causes a breach in the animal test subjects’ ability to conduct proper cellular metabolism, which is essential for tissue survival.  While an ischemic condition can manifest itself in various conditions such as thrombosis, vasoconstriction, or embolism, a cardiac ischemic injury is one that directly correlates to the myocardium, the muscle that is better known as the heart.  This condition can lead to cardiac arrest, and could be signaled by a condition known as angina pectoris, otherwise known as a lack of sufficient blood flow to the brain.

AICAR’s overall mechanics are such that scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that it can possibly help in preventing blood flow restriction; this prevention could aid in stopping an ischemic episode from happening even before it begins.  It is also thought that ACAR’s properties can make in an effective aid in treating an animal test subject in the event of a heart attack that is brought on by an ischemic episode.  This deduction is specifically tied to the peptide’s ability to promote an elevated level of blood flow to the heart muscle, thus allowing a greater instance of stabilization as the animal test subject recovers.

AICAR’s functionality has also led scientific study on animal test subjects to determine that the peptide can allow for an increased endurance to occur.  It is though that AICAR can do this because the of the peptide’s ability to enable blood to flow through an animal test subject’s circulatory system more freely.  This, then, enables a more efficient means of receiving energy, thus allowing for an animal test subject to experience a boosted level of energy over a longer stretch of time.

Additionally, it has been noted that AICAR’s functionality could allow for a boosted rate at wich adipose tissue (also known as body fat) can get broken down.  This elevated process is due to the notion that AICAR can enable a more efficient means of energy conversion.  Because of this boosted rate, the animal test subject’s body will respond by increasing the rate it can burn through adipose tissue in order to compensate for the heightened energy demands.  It should be noted that this uptick in breaking down adipose tissue is only effective if the animal test subject sticks to a controlled, regulated diet and does not increase its elevated intake of food.

Only for Research Purposes

Despite the fact that an extensive amount of study and research has been done in order to pinpoint the overall functionality of AICAR, up to and including the ways in which it can promote various process, it needs to be emphasized that all of the research has only been constructed around scientific studies that have been based on animal test subjects.  Furthermore, the current use of the peptide is solely intended for scientific research purposes and nothing more.  Any findings or observations relating to AICAR’s overall functionality the determinations that can be derived from such observations should be exclusively contained to a strictly controlled environment such as a laboratory or a medical research facility.